Get tips for growing melons! Farming methods use fertilizers and take good care of them

Basic methods of growing melons

Cantaloup is one of the difficult crops because it requires temperature control as well as water control. It is important to grow cantaloupe with good sunlight, good ventilation and drainage. Since the amount of water needs to vary depending on the stage of growth and also requires temperature control, coverings, covers or tunnels should be used to minimize weather effects. The hot lid is also rain-proof.

A melon just sprouted. Real leaves are starting to appear

Seeds are sown in the seedling nursery box and are controlled at a soil temperature between 28 and 30 ° C until germination. Gradually reduce the temperature after germination and lower the temperature to about 22 ° C before planting pots.
When the leaflets come out, put them in a pot (9-12 cm). Immediately after potting, soil temperature was maintained at 25 ° C to promote rooting, and after leaves were actually controlled at 18 ° C.
Plant about 3 to 4 real leaves (about 30 to 35 days). Be careful not to delay replanting time. For seedling nursery land, commercially available garden land should be used to prevent diseases.

Seedlings of melon (pots) when they have 3 real leaves. Seedlings in the picture are grafted

To plant successfully, need to fertilize 1-2 weeks before replanting. The roots are very sensitive to moisture, so make beds about 15 cm high and cover with black poly mulch. Apply mulch layers when the soil is moderately moist (the soil will harden if you lightly grip the soil with your hand). It works to raise soil temperature and fight weeds.
Should be planted in the morning on a sunny day. When planting, leave a space of about 60 to 80 cm between the stores and cover the hot pot for each warehouse. When the vine comes out of the hot lid, remove the lid. Hot hats can be obtained at home centers.
You can buy seedlings and plant them instead of seeds.

After planting, new leaves will be produced. When the parents’ real 5 leaves are opened, the core will be pinched. Trimming is the process of picking new shoots from the trunk. When you have 4 to 5 (sub-branch), discard the others, leaving 2 healthy ones. The child stretches in a certain direction, when about 20 leaves are attached, the core is pinched, and all the grandchildren attached to the 7th leaf are also withdrawn. The nephews appear between the 8th to 11th leaves of the small vine, which are joined into fruit-bearing branches (the fruit-bearing branch). Clamp the fruit-bearing branch with the second leaf.

Melons have female flowers and male flowers. The female flower is attached to the first node of the secondary branch, and the male flower is mainly attached to the main branch. Use artificial mating to ensure fruiting.

This is the female flower. You can see that there is a bulging mass in the ovary

This is a male flower (center left), easy to find if you’re looking for the main branch

Mating should be avoided on cloudy and rainy days, and ensure a minimum nighttime temperature of 15 ° C or higher. Between 8 and 9 am, take the stamens of the male flowers that have already bloomed during the day and attach to the female stamens. If the weather is bad for a long time, the pollen may not come out. Make sure the pollen is coming out of the stamen. Ideally, the minimum temperature should be kept above 20 ° C for 24 hours after artificial mating.

You should prune about 6 fruits, leaving 4 oval-shaped, beautiful fruits. Aim to harvest 4 melons with 1 seedling. About 7 to 10 days after pollination, the greens are picked at about the size of the egg (the fruit is thinner). At this point, cut off the remaining petals.

The best time to harvest depends on the variety, but the leaves of the pods begin to die. When it is almost ripe, all leaves turn yellow. The harvest time for Makuwa melons is about 40 days after they bloom and when the fragrance begins to appear. For melons and melons, the optimal harvest time is about 55 days after flowering.

The melon on the right is dead. If the leaves die, it’s the right time to harvest!

The Prince melon tastes best when the hardness of the tail disappears and the aroma becomes stronger. Andean melons made from cantaloupe are ready to eat when the tail becomes tender. Additionally, the melon will ripen and become ready to eat if left for about a week after harvest.

When was melon grown?

For the cultivation of melons, it is necessary to choose the time of cultivation with consideration of the temperature of the year.

When sowing in bare land, March to April is the time to sow seeds in warm regions, plant in April for non-nets and mid-April to early May for nets. For direct sowing or planting, minimum soil temperature 14 ° C and minimum soil temperature 16 ° C or higher. After planting, 25-28 ° C during the day and 18-20 ° C at night are the right temperature for melons to grow.
If you change the cultivation time, you can grow melons in cool Hokkaido, Kagoshima and Okinawa, which are warm regions. In warm areas, sowing earlier than the average area according to temperature, choose varieties that can withstand hot sun.

Fertilizer and top dressing are essential for growing melons

Apply 200g of compost per square meter a month before planting. Also, dig the soil well. Two weeks before planting, apply 15 g of nitrogen, 20 g of phosphoric acid, and 15 g of potassium and then cultivate well again. If fertilizing a lot, the leaves will be good, but pests and diseases break out a lot and the fruit quality is poor, so don’t give too much.
No additional fertilization is required when planting in the field, but in the case of potted plants, some fertilizer is lightly sprinkled around the plant around day 10 when fruiting. Then carry out top dressing while observing the growth, but not top dressing to increase sugar level 20 days after insemination.

What is the relationship between when to water, amount of water to irrigate and the amount of sugar?

Change the amount of watering according to the growth stage of the melon!

The amount of water needed depends on the stage of growth. When you want the fruit to grow, water more water, when near harvest, reduce the amount of water and increase the sugar.
Melons will weaken if you don’t drain well, so be careful when watering. Should water in the morning as much as possible. Water fully after planting until the plants take root, when the plants have rooted should not be too dry. By doing so, it will bear fruit and encourage deep rooting.
After fruiting, water more until day 10 to make fruit bigger, limit watering until about 11-18 days after fruiting. Then add more water, but after about 30 days after setting fruit, gradually reduce the amount of water.

Can melon be planted?

Planting is possible if you choose a variety that is grown for indoor use.
Place one seedling in a pot of 20 liters or more and plant in a sunny place. Cover to block wind and rain, but take care to ensure good drainage and ventilation.
Drainage is better if you put substrate on the bottom of the pot. As for land, in recent years, the land for planting trees has been sold a lot, so it is used. In addition, as the seedling grows, we will erect poles to attract vines. 1 or 2 seedlings should be used as a guide for fruiting.

[Phỏng vấn và ảnh hợp tác]Ibaraki Provincial Center for Agricultural Research / Hiroshi Mizuno

[Giám sát]Mitsuhiro Sugiyama, Vegetable and Flower Research Division, Agricultural Research Organization